Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

D. arsenal. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.

Last year, the U.S. According to Sen. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. All rights reserved.

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. Nelson.

Copyright 2003 CBS. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. In the modern U.S. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. wants to stop proliferation.

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

By Jarrett Murphy

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. .

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C

US keeping nuclear warheads in case of killer asteroids

This article originally appeared on Newser: US Keeping Nukes in Case of … (The asteroid that hit the planet 66 million years ago wiped out the dinosaurs because of very bad timing, researchers say.)

Scientists believe it will be at least a century before any asteroids big enough to wreck the planet are close enough to worry about, but some researchers are worried about smaller asteroids and believe nuclear weapons could be an effective solution, the Atlantic reports.

Somebody’s been watching Armageddon: American nuclear authorities say they have delayed getting rid of old warhead components because they could help protect the world from killer asteroids.. Asteroids?

US keeping nuclear warheads in case of ??? killer asteroids

A Malmstrom Air Force Base missile maintenance team removes the upper section of an ICBM at a Montana missile site. (AP Photo/US Air Force, John Parie)

Authorities say the warheads are being kept “pending a senior-level government evaluation of their use in planetary defense against earthbound asteroids,” reports the Wall Street Journal, which found the information “tucked away” on the 67th page of a Government Accountability Office report on the National Nuclear Security Administration.

More From Newser

But that runs the risk of having radioactive debris hit Earth, and a Purdue University professor tells the Journal that there are probably better ways to ward off asteroids, including a “gravity tractor” that could change their course.

Saying nukes are needed to defend the planet “may be an excuse for keeping the nuclear arsenal together,” he says

What happens when you drop a nuclear warhead on concrete? — FCW

Contact him at mrockwell@fcw.com or follow him on Twitter at @MRockwell4.

Researchers at Sandia National Labs, who are responsible for validating designs, improving computer modeling and updating component specifications for the W88 Alt 370 (alteration), have finished gathering data from two tests for an upgraded version of the US W88 nuclear warhead used in the Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile.

The test is designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface, according to the lab and helps develop evidence that the shell would remain safe during an accident. The June CRAFT test, according to Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities, was the first of several planned tests intended to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests, according to the lab.

Data analytics

Mark Rockwell is a staff writer covering acquisition, procurement and homeland security. It was also the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kansas City Plant, and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

The second test was more straightforward — and possibly a little alarming, if you’re not familiar with nuclear weapons design tests..

About the Author

What happens when you drop a nuclear warhead on concrete?

By Mark RockwellNov 04, 2014

Image copyright to Sandia National Labs.

Sandia National Labs’ 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., was used to gather data on the durability of the W88 ALT 370 warhead.

Gathering data for the latest nuclear warhead design is as nuanced as gathering intricate computer modeling data from flight tests and as brutally honest as dropping a nuclear warhead’s shell onto a concrete slab to see if it breaks.

And, according to a statement from the labs, the W88 Alt 370 is cleared to move forward.

In its first “drop test” of the W88 warhead since 1987, Sandia researchers hoisted an unarmed version of the weapon’s re-entry body on a crane and dropped it almost 200 feet to smash onto a concrete slab below.

Sandia said it will use vibration and shock measurement data from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon. The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility near Albuquerque, N.M., using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels

Transatlantic clean ship rates soften | Energy & Oil | Reuters

Firmer activity in April last year

pushed rates to their highest since 2008 on a jump in U.S.

gasoline demand, helping to reduce the number of tankers

available for hire.

.

* Transatlantic market set to stay volatile

Rates for medium-range (MR) tankers for 37,000 tonne cargoes

from Rotterdam to New York moved to W155.00, or $11,642 a day

when translated into average earnings, from W164.79 or $13,688 a

day on Friday and W154.38 or $11,406 a day last Monday.

LONDON Jan 23 (Reuters) – Refined petroleum tanker

rates on top export routes were mostly steady on Monday although

slower activity took its toll on earnings in the transatlantic

market.

Brokers said a rush of cargo fixing earlier last week,

helped by a demand boost, lost momentum.

Typical Long Range 2, 75,000 tonne shipments on the Middle

East Gulf (MEG) to Japan route stood at W88.95 from W88.71 on

Friday and W88.38 on Monday.

“This looks likely to have been a fleeting spike, however,

and a sedate end to the week lowered rates back down to …

$13,500/day,” broker SSY said on Monday.

* LR rates to stay subdued due to China holidays

Long Range (LR) 1 tankers, carrying 55,000 tonne loads from

the Middle East Gulf (MEG) to Japan, were at W104.50, from

W104.04 on Friday and W98.15 last Monday.

  Continued…

Earnings hit their lowest in a year in November and have

been volatile since then

Transatlantic clean ship rates steady, gains eyed | Reuters

Long Range 1 tankers, carrying 55,000 tonne loads from the

Middle East Gulf to Japan, were at W112.04 on Monday, from

W113.64 on Friday and W118.79 last Monday.

In April last year rates reached their highest since 2008 on

a jump in U.S. “Rates

continued to trade sideways and cargo demand again failed to

force the persistent issue of an over tonnaged market.”

(Reporting by Jonathan Saul, editing by William Hardy)

Analysts said less refinery capacity in the Atlantic Basin

could boost long-haul demand for the wider products tanker

sector in coming years, helped by fewer tankers being delivered.

* Med rates still facing tanker glut

Earnings hit their lowest levels in a year in November 2011

and have been volatile since then.

* LR market stays pressured

“Upward pressure remains and further activity during the

week ahead should prompt further rate gains,” broker CR Weber

said.. Gibson said. gasoline demand, helping reduce the number of

tankers available for hire.

Brokers said firmer trading helped rates edge up in recent

days.

Typical Long Range 2, 75,000 tonne shipments on the Middle

East Gulf to Japan route stood at 85.64 in the Worldscale

measure of freight rates on Monday from W86.32 on Friday and

W88.14 last Monday.

“Enquiry in the ex-MEG LR market was met with a plentiful

supply of prompt tonnage, ensuring that 55K MEG – Japan rates

fell,” SSY said.

In the Mediterranean, 30,000 tonne shipments ex-Algeria to

southern Europe were at W137.00 on Monday versus W137.50 on

Friday and W136.67 last Monday.

Rates for medium-range tankers for 37,000 tonne cargoes from

Rotterdam to New York route moved to W147.50, or $11,709 a day

when translated into average earnings on Monday, from W147.29 or

$11,182 a day on Friday and W137.71 or $9,011 a day last Monday.

LONDON May 21 (Reuters) – Tanker rates for refined

petroleum products on top export routes were mostly softer on

Monday although buoyant cargo interest provided support to the

transatlantic market.

“It was the same old story in the Mediterranean, despite

plenty of activity last week,” broker E.A

59 sentenced in Vietnam for links with foreign gambling website | Society

According to the indictment, Tram was the representative of M88, which offers sports betting and other gambling services in many Asian countries.

Six of the accused, who were the site’s agents in Vietnam, were sentenced to two to seven years in prison for “organizing gambling”.

A Ho Chi Minh City court Tuesday sent 52 people to jail and gave seven others suspended sentences for involvement with the Philippines-based M88, one of the world’s biggest online casinos.

Through Tram, who was then the director of Hanoi-based media company News Plus, in 2010 his deputy Cu Thi Thanh Hai, Nguyen Le Sang, then deputy director of PR and marketing at Vietnam International Bank, and four others became the website’s agents.

Nguyen Vo Hoai Tram, believed to be the mastermind behind M88′s operations in Vietnam — where gambling is illegal — is still at large along with several other suspects.

When their operations were busted in early 2013, their illegal activities were worth VND2 trillion (US$91.63 million), prosecutors said.

Their job was to open personal bank accounts, including in the name of their relatives, to obtain money from gamblers and send to winners.

Meanwhile, luxury casinos have been springing up around the country to cater exclusively to foreign nationals.

In recent years the government and many lawmakers have been considering legalizing sports betting.

The rest were found guilty of “gambling”, with 46 getting terms ranging from one and a half to four years.

Winter Solstice ~ What it means, its origins and how it is celebrated around the world

The winter months were also known as the famine months in ancient times. The axis at New Grange were set for the Winter Solstice.

Nobody was assured of surviving the cold, bleak winter months with minimal shelter and little food. “Jewish Yule”) for Chanukkah.

The primary axes of both of these monuments seem to have been carefully aligned, framing the winter solstice sunrise (New Grange)and the winter solstice sunset (Stonehenge).

Wikipedia public domain

The slaves celebrated a banquet: before, with, or served by the masters. Requiems for the dead were performed during the night, as they awaited the sunrise.

Karachun, Korochun or KraÃ,,Ã,un was a Slavic holiday as a day when the Black God and other evil spirits are most powerful. colorful, informal “dinner clothes”; and a certain ‘freedman’s hat’ was worn by everyone. Children disguised themselves as Koledari, and visited house and sang songs of good luck. Wikipedia commons, free license. This originated as Lussi Night and was usually occurred on December 13, which was believed to have been the longest night of the year.The Roman Catholic church appropriated this feast and called it Santa Lucia or St. The midwinter celebration was known as the last celebration of a feast, before deep winter began.

Priests also sacrificed llamas and virgins at Machu Picchu.

Archeologists and paleontologists believe that solstice festivals may have gone on since neolithic times, since physical remains have been found during Neolithic and Bronze Age archeological sites such as Stonehenge and New Grange.

Yule or Yuletide is also a celebrated secular alternative to “Christmas”, commonly occurring on the winter solstice or December 24th and 25th, in the northern hemisphere.

In Ireland, winter begins on All Hallows, November 1, also known as Samhain, with winter ending and the beginning of Spring celebrating on Imbolc or Candlemas on February 1 or 2.

Of course, one of the most beautiful festivals is that of Santa Lucia, St. They were given gifts in return, much like the old wassailing or mummers tradition.

The toga was not worn, but rather the synthesis, i.e. Other similar formations are scattered throughout Ireland.

Sun Celebration,

http://media-files.gather.com/images/d248/d510/d744/d224/d96/f3/full.jpg

Saturnalia, of course, is the Winter Solstice feast that predates most Winter Solstice feasts. The longer daylight hours are believed to restore energy. Most wine and beer that had been made was finally ready for drinking during this time.

The contemporary Scandinavian Jul, Julfest, Jol or Joulu is primarily a cultural observance and does not distinguish between the Germanic feast, the Christian Christmas, the secular Yule, the Neopagan Yule, or the pre-indo European winter solstice celebration and is also occasionally used to denote other holidays in December, e.g., “jodisk jul” or “judisk jul” (tr. Balls of sticky rice, which symbolize reunion, are eaten during this time.

In Hawaii, the night of Hoku was a celebration on the full moon closest to the winter solstice.

In Pakistan, a demigod returns on this night to collect prayers; men and boys, women and children undergo purification baths, after which a great festival follows.

Fires burned brightly during Winter Solstice in ancient times.

The actual word solstice derives from Latin and means Sun set still in winter.

http://media-files.gather.com/images/d316/d510/d744/d224/d96/f3/full.jpg

http://media-files.gather.com/images/d258/d510/d744/d224/d96/f3/full.jpg. In the southern hemisphere it is often celebrated on the winter solstice or some time through early July.

Cattle were slaughtered so they would not have to be fed during winter months; this made for a fresh supply of meat to become available, and one that would have to last until Spring. She travels through the sky in a vehicle made of reindeer bones with her daughter; this is believed to signal the return of green to the world.

In Japan, dating from the 7th century, the Sun Goddess Amaterasu (or Amateras, Hindu) re-emerged from her cave, to bring sunlight back to the world. Saturnalia became one of the most popular Roman festivals, which led to more tomfoolery, marked chiefly by having masters and slaves ostensibly switch places, temporarily reversing the social order.

In Finland, the Saami, which are the indigenous peoples of much of Scandinavia,worship a sun goddes of fertility and sanity. In 1967 a thin light showing through a passageway for 17 minutes was first observed during sunset at Winter Solstice. Lucy’s day in Sweden. The celebrations included a school holiday, the making and giving of small presents (saturnalia et sigillaricia) and a special market (sigillaria). On this night, Hors, which symbolizes the old sun, becomes smaller as the days become shorter in the Northern Hemisphere.

The Incans in Peru celebrated the return of the sun in their practice, tying of the sun. Families made a fire and invited their personal household Gods to join the festival. The midwinter bonfire holiday also began in Burra soon after.

Currently, Yulefest is observed by various Australians, often starting on a weekend in late  June.

This year, Winter Solstice falls on December 21nd.

In China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam, the festival that marks the extreme of winter is one of the most important festivals; this festival dates back to the Yin and Yang philosophy of balance, noting, of course, the shortest day and longest night during the year, during which time the heavens become more in balance. Slaves were exempt from punishment, and treated their masters with disrespect.

http://media-files.gather.com/images/d236/d510/d744/d224/d96/f3/full.jpg

Creative Commons: Fredrik Magnusson

Solar celebrations in the Southern Hemisphere often occur on December 24.

The sacrifice was to appease the Gods, to convince them to let go of Winter’s cold, cruel grip. In Russia, this festival was later applied to Christmas Eve but most practices were lost during Communism. Missionaries finally convinced many in Europe to abandon this practice around the 13th century in Europe.

Besides public rituals, there were a series of holidays and customs celebrated privately. Gambling was allowed for all, even slaves during this period.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lucia_procession.jpg

A large and important public festival in Rome, it involved the conventional sacrifices, a couch set in front of the temple of Saturn and the untying of the ropes that bound the statue of Saturn during the rest of the year.

In the Northern Hemisphere, that means the shortest day of the year.  In the Southern Hemisphere, that day is longer on that day than on any other day of the year. The Slavs celebrate it on the longest night (shortest day) of the year – Winter Solstice. The Spanish Conquistadores never found Machu Picchu, and so Machu Picchu remains the only extant example of this early Incan practice of using the large stone column, the Intihuatana, to tie the post to the sun, to prevent the sun from escaping.

Machu Picchu sunrise, Wikipedia public domain

The winter solstice may have been immensely important because communities were not assured to live through the winter, and had to be prepared during the previous nine months.

Inca

Japanese Sun Goddess Amaterasu emerging from a cave.

New Grange, Ireland, dating from about 3,000 BC. Stonehenge was used a s a calendar during ancient times. Originally Celebrated by the Ancient Greeks as Kronia the festival of Chronos, Saturnalia was the feast at which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of Saturn, which originally took place on 17 December, but expanded to a whole week, up to the 23 of December.

Use of evergreens, large ongoing fires, feasting and gathering with friends and family, dancing and making merry are hallmarks of the winter solstice celebrations since ancient times, and even since the beginning of civilization.

The earliest recorded Australian midwinter bonfire was lit in  Moonta,  the night leading into  June 24, 1862 by  immigrants carrying on the European Midsummer  tradition. Lucy’s Day, and was believed in the Swedish folklore that if Swedish children did not carry out their chores that a female demon would punish them.

In Sweden, and also in many other parts of Europe, tribes that were polytheistic in origin often celebrated a Midvinterblot or mid-winter sacrifice, that often featured both animal and human sacrifice, not unlike the sacrifices of the Incas of the lamb or the virgin by the Priests at Machu Picchu.

Winter solstice festivals in the Northern Hemisphere have gone on since ancient times, focusing on lights, feasts, town and community gatherings, and many celebrations that are the origins of some of the practices associated during the Christmas holidays.

Winter Solstice festivals around the world, from early times.

In Slavonic culture, the festival of Kaleda began at Winter Solstice and lasted for 10 days. Winter Solstice is commonly referred to globally as December Solstice.

Sun rising at Stonehenge in southern England during Summer Solstice

Tottenham Hotspur Announces Fun88 as Club`s Asian Betting and Gaming Partner | Reuters

This

partnership brings together one of Asia’s top online gaming companies

and Tottenham Hotspur, one of the most exciting and attacking clubs in

the English Premier League.

For Media Enquiries:

Esther Cochrane

T: 00 44 7875961828

E:

esther@gameon-marketing.com

Fun88 Casino: www.fun88.com/Casino

Links:

“We are looking forward to working with Club to launch a new bespoke

betting microsite. This is the first time the

Club has signed a regional partnership in Asia and is largely down to

the significant increase we have seen in the growth of our international

fan base over the past few years.

Fun88 Promotions: www.fun88.com/Promo

Notes to Editors:

Tottenham Hotspur Announces Fun88 as Club’s Asian Betting and Gaming

Partner

-ENDS-

Nick Lee, founder of www.Fun88.com

commented: “I am proud to announce Fun88′s partnership with Tottenham

Hotspur, as the Club’s Asian betting and gaming partner. We believe that our knowledge of developing fun,

interactive and engaging gaming platforms will provide Tottenham

Hotspur’s international fan base with an exciting, new gaming

experience.”

The two year agreement, which begins immediately, will see the two

organisations work together to engage with Asian sports fans through a

range of online and offline activities which will include launching a

co-branded gaming microsite.

. With its unique blend of sportsbook, casino and live dealer

products and with more innovative gaming platforms under development

such as peer to peer gaming and poker networks, Fun88 promises to

deliver the ultimate gaming experience for users each and every time.

Daniel Levy, Chairman, Tottenham Hotspur, said: “We are delighted that

Fun88 will become an Official Club Partner.

-ENDS-

About Fun88

Fun88 Sportsbook: www.fun88.com/Sportsbook

Tottenham Hotspur Football Club today announced that Fun88, a leading

Asian gaming company, will become the Club’s Official Asian Betting and

Gaming Partner.

“Over 60% of our global fan base comes from Asia and together with the

Club’s reach through the Barclays Premier League broadcast platform, we

are ideally placed to support Fun88′s continued growth in the Asian

marketplace.”

Since the launch of Fun88 in 2008, it has successfully merged

entertainment with an unsurpassed gaming experience into a portal that

is both instantly recognisable and the choice of many Asian based

players

1 2 3 11